Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Northeastern University
- Location and prior offense record affects juvenile justice.
Juvenile offenders are not given the same punishments as adult offenders because Supreme Court Rulings determined that sentencing juveniles to death was cruel and unusual punishment (Roper v. Simmons) as well as life without parole for non-homicide offences (Graham v. Florida). Singer looks at case studies where juveniles are given capital penalties for their crimes; specifically juveniles charged with murder and convicted in criminal court but not all for the original charge of murder. These juveniles were given less than life in prison.