The multivariate results indicate that crime is the primary driver of police shootings.
Enforcement activity increased from 2003-2011 and decreased from 2011 – 2014. Men, young people and ethnic minorities experienced the greatest amount of fluctuation in enforcement rates.
From 2003-2013, New York City experienced an overall decline in the rate of issuance of summonses. Approximately two in five summonses were dismissed (2003-2013). 36% summonses recipients failed to appear in court.
More research should be conducted to assess school safety outcomes when adding police in schools.
Research suggests that generic strategies like community policing and increasing the number of police officers are less effective than more focused policing strategies that target problem people and places.