Tracking Enforcement Rates in New York City

Jeremy Travis
President, John Jay College of Criminal Justice

Key Findings

  • Enforcement activity increased from 2003-2011 and decreased from 2011 – 2014.
  • Men, young people and ethnic minorities experienced the greatest amount of fluctuation in enforcement rates.
  • The gender gap in enforcement between men and women decreased while gaps between youngest and oldest age groups and ethnic groups were more varied.
  • From 2011 to 2014, there were approximately 800,000 fewer enforcement actions (including felony arrests,misdemeanor arrests, C-summonses, moving violation summonses and stops).


This third report from the Misdemeanor Justice Project documents the changing patterns in felony arrests, misdemeanor arrests, criminal summonses, and stop, question and frisk activities in New York City from 2003-2014. This report presents trends in arrests, criminal summonses and stops, analyzing these data by the age,gender, and race/ethnicity (when possible) of those receiving this enforcement attention. 

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