In the article, “A Reconceptualization of General and Specific Deterrence,” Stafford proposes the concept of reconceptualization to cover gaps in previous deterrence research and thinking. Reconceptualization can be used when trying to understand people who commit more than one type of crime and are not punished for both types of crime. In this situation, the individual is not being generally or specifically deterred from certain types of crime. For this reason, Stafford included punishment avoidance to the concept of reconceptualization. Stafford argues that this idea of reconceptualization will help create deterrence theories and frameworks for researchers and explore the aspect of punishment avoidance.